Recognizing the shortcomings in gender-sensitive development policy making, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) on October 31, 2000, officially acknowledging women’s right to participate in all aspects of conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping, and peace building, and inclusion in decision making bodies at all levels of governance. UNSCR 1325 was followed by six subsequent resolutions on Women, Peace and Security (WPS), creating a normative policy framework for UN Member States to adopt a gender perspective in their peace operations and provide guidance for translating high level recommendations into concrete policies and action plans.
UNSCR 1325 was followed up with six subsequent resolutions, providing additional guidance and details as follows:
- Resolution 1820 (2008) draws attention to sexual violence being used as a weapon of war and calls for the need for prosecution of gender-based war crimes.
- Resolution 1888 (2009) calls for appointment of a Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, and the establishment Women’s Protection Advisors within Peacekeeping missions.
- Resolution 1889 (2009) focuses on women’s participation in peace building and calls on United Nations Secretary General to develop a set of global indicator to measure impact of UNSCR 1325 at global and national levels. It further welcomes “the efforts of member states in implementing Resolution 1325 at the national level, including the development of national action plans”.
- Resolution 1960 (2010) calls for refining institutional tools to combat impunity related to sexual violence, notably through the set up of a ‘naming and shaming’ list in annual reports.
- Resolution 2106 (2013) on the need to better operationalize existing obligations, particularly those related to sexual violence.
- Resolution 2122 (2013) on women’s leadership and empowerment as a central component for resolving conflicts and promoting peace through a number of specific calls for regular consultations, funding mechanisms to support women’s civil society organization and changes in the Council’s working methods in relation to WPS.
On June 30, 2015 Afghanistan adopted its own National Action Plan on UNSCR 1325. The highly volatile security situation in Afghanistan since the 2014 security transition has brought serious threats to the rights of vulnerable populations, particularly for women and girls. A necessary component for reconciling women’s rights according to the law and women’s rights in practice is the role to be played by civil society and women’s rights organizations in creating the crucial linkage between the state’s regulatory provisions and the basic rights of women. The need for this linkage has been given an additional momentum by the release of Afghanistan’s NAP 1325.
In order to avoid Afghanistan’s NAP 1325 to face the same shortcomings as NAPWA, the mandate of NAC-PP’s sub-committee on NAP 1325 is to support the translation into practice of Afghan Government’s commitments for Women, Peace, and Security through ongoing, evidence-based interface between civil society and the government.